Cracking Your Calorie Code

Research Studies Bibliography

 

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Single vs. Multiple Sets in long-term recreational weightlifters.

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Stretching before exercise does not reduce the risk of local muscle injury: a critical review of the clinical and basic scientific literature.

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Effect of static stretching of the biceps brachii on torque, electromyography, and mechanomyography during concentric isokinetic muscle actions.

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American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1999; 70:1032-1039.

 

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Fat storage in athletes: metabolic and hormonal responses to swimming and running.

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Effects of exercise in cool water on bodyweight loss.

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Balanced dieters 31% less likely to die and 20% lower risk of stroke, cancer and heart disease than those on “shunning” diets like Atkins, etc.

J of Amer Med assoc. Apr. 26, 2000.

 

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The role of warm up in muscular injury prevention.

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Myths and Truths about Stretching.

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The effect of pre-exercise carbohydrate feedings on the intensity that elicits maximal fat oxidation.


J Sports Sci. 2003 Dec;21(12):1017-24.

 

Minor changes in a program prevents plateaus:

Neuromuscular adaptation to power and endurance work. 

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Dr. Kosich Seminar 8/13/00:

  • TEE of carbs incr. met. by 10%, but protein increases it by 25%. This also confirmed by Dr. Colker of the Greenwich Diet (as printed in For Women First, Sept. 2000).
  • Stroke volume hits max at about 40%V02 and therefore gives cardio improvements at that (low) intensity.
  • Minimum duration is 15-20 min. sessions. Two 10 min. sessions in the same day is almost as good!
  • Epinephrine encourages fat to be released into blood stream. HIT releases the most epinephrine.
  • Strength training to failure has the same effect that cardio has on LDL.
  • 95% of dieters regain it in 2 years.
  • Muscles store about 1400 cal. of glucose, 320 in the liver, and 80 in the blood. Untrained muscles store about 13g/kg, trained store 32 and carbo-loaded can store 35-40 g/kg.
  • For every gram of glycogen that is stored, 3 grams of water have to accompany it. Re-hydration is key after a workout to replenish used glycogen from the high intensity workout! It can take up to two days to replenish this glycogen.
  • People tend to underreport their intake by 400-500 calories (or 25%) per day.
  • Steroids lower HDL.
  • Rapid weight loss is always water loss.
  • HR formulas over-predict 20% of the population.

 

Stich, V. et al. (2000)

Adipose tissue lipolysis is increased during a repeated bout of aerobic exercise.

J App Phys. 88:1277-1283.

 

Corder, K.P. Potteiger, J.A., Mau, K.L., et. al.

Effects of active and passive recovery conditions on blood lactate, rating of perceived exertion and performance during resistance exercise.

Journal of Strength and Cond. Res. 14(2):1510156, 2000.

 

Exercisers get 25% more improvement with a trainer than without in 12 weeks.

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Do regular high protein diets have potential health risks on kidney function in athletes?

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Monitoring strength training: neuromuscular and hormonal profile.

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Effect of single wrist exer on fribroblast growth factor 2, insulin-like growth factor and growth hormone. Amer. J. Physiology. 279: R548-R553.

                 

Preventing sarcopenia (muscle loss) with age:

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-Ohio Univ. Physiologists (http://www.ast-ss.com/research/breaking/sept00/b-r_9-28-00.asp)

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Effects of dietary fat on postprandial substrate oxidation and on carbohydrate and fat balances.

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Dose-dependent effects of insulin on plasma free fatty acid turnover and oxidation in humans.

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Training of muscle strength and power: Interactions of neuromotoric, hypertrophic, and mechanincal factors.

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Metabolic character of exercise at traditional intensities in cardiac patients and healthy persons.

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Relationship between the talk test and ventilatory threshold.

Clinical Exercise Physiology 2(1):34-38, 2000.

 

US dept. of Health and Human Svs. Physical Activity and Health: A report of the surgeon general. Atlanta , Ga. 1996

 

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Effects of computer feedback on adheareance to exercise.

Perceptual and Motor Skills 87:723-730, 1998.

               

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Exercise Adhearance: It’s impact on public health.

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The effect of perceived activity choice on exercise adherence

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Weight Training: A Scientific Approach.

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The effect of running, weightlifting and a combination of both on growth hormone release.

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The effects of mesocycle-length weight training programs involving periodization and partially equated volumes on upper and lower body strength.

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MacDougall J.D.

Muscle performance and enzymatic adaptations to sprint interval training.

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The obtuse nature of muscular strength: The contribution of rest to its development and expression.

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Effects of active and passive recovery conditions on blood lactate, rating of perceived exertion and performance during resistance exercise.

Journal of Strength and Cond. Res. 14(2):1510156, 2000.

 

Dan Cherkin, et. al.

Archives of Internal Med. 2001.

 

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The relationship Between Field tests of Anaerobic Power and 10-km Run Performance.

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The frequency of meals: its relation to hypercholesterolemia and decreased glucose tolerance.

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Nibbling Versus Gorging: Metabolic Advantages of Increased Meal Frequency.

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Canadian Exercise Physiologists presentation at the annual meeting of the Canadian Society of Exercise Physiology, held in Quebec , Nov. 2001.  

 

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Quinn, T.J., Vroman, N.B., and Kertzer, R. 1994. Post-exercise oxygen consumption in trained females: effect of exercise duration. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 26(7), 908-913.

Sedlock, D.A. 1992. Post-exercise energy expenditure after cycle ergometer and treadmill exercise. Journal of Applied Sport Science Research, 6(1), 19-23.

Sedlock, D.A., Fissinger, J.A., and Melby, C.L. 1989. Effect of exercise intensity and duration on post-exercise energy expenditure. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 21(6), 662-666.

Short, K.R. and D.A. Sedlock. 1997. Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption and recovery rate in trained and untrained subjects. Journal of Applied Physiology, 83(1), 153-159.

Smith, J. and McNaughton, L. 1993. The effects of intensity of exercise on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption and energy expenditure in moderately trained men and women. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 67, 420-425.

Thornton , M.K. and Potteiger, J.A. 2002. Effects of resistance exercise bouts of different intensities but equal work on EPOC. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(4), 715-722.

Withers, R.T., Gore, C.J., Mackay, M.H., and Berry , M.N. 1991. Some aspects of metabolism following a 35 km road run. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 63(6), 436-443.  

Vit D slows aging: Amer. J of Clin Nutr. 86(5), 1376-1383, November, 2007.  

Maridakis V, O'Connor PJ, Dudley GA, McCully KK. J Pain. 2007 Mar;8(3):237-43. Epub 2006 Dec 11  

Motl RW, O'Connor PJ, Dishman RK.  J Pain. 2003 Aug;4(6):316-21  

Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Oct;86(4):1210-8 Dietary carbohydrate and the progression of age-related macular degeneration: a prospective study from the Age-Related Eye Disease Study. Chiu CJ, Milton RC, Klein R, Gensler G, Taylor A.

 

Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004 Jul;28(7):933-5 A Pavlovian approach to the problem of obesity. Artificial sweeteners block ability of body to tell how many calories it has eaten and cause overeating. Davidson TL, Swithers SE.  

 

Kravitz, L. et al Exercise mode and gender comparisons of energy expenditure at self-selected intensities. Med. And Sci. in Sports and Exer. 29(8):1028-1035, 1997.  

Hagerman, F.C. et al  A comparison of energy expenditure during rowing and cycle ergometry. Med and Sci in Sp. And Ex. 20(5): 479-488, 1988.  

Zeni, A.I. et al  Energy Expenditure with indoor exercise machines. JAMA 275 (18): 1424-1427, 1996a.  

Andersen, LL, et al. The effect of resistance training combined with timed ingestion of protein on muscle fiber size and muscle strength. Metabolism 54(2):151-156, 2005  

Bird, SP, et al. Independent and combined effects of liquid carbohydrate/essential amino acid ingestion on hormonal and muscular adaptations following resistance exercise in untrained men. Eur J Appl Physiol 2006.  

1: Br J Nutr. 2004 Jun;91(6):951-8.  

Bolocofsky, David N.; Spinler, Dwayne; Coulthard-Morris, Linda (1985). 

Effectiveness of hypnosis as an adjunct to behavioral weight management. 

Journal of Clinical Psychology, 41 (1), 35-41.  

Cochrane, Gordon; Friesen, J. (1986). 

Hypnotherapy in weight loss treatment. 

Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 489-492.  

Kirsch, Irving (1996). 

Hypnotic enhancement of cognitive-behavioral weight loss treatments--Another meta-reanalysis. 

Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64 (3), 517-519.  

The National Weight Control Registry Research Findings:

Klem, M.L., Wing, R.R., McGuire, M.T., Seagle, H.M., & Hill, J.O. A descriptive study of individuals successful at long-term maintenance of substantial weight loss. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1997, 66, 239-246.
Read the abstract

Shick, S.M., Wing, R.R., Klem, M.L., McGuire, M.T., Hill, J.O., & Seagle, H. Persons successful at long-term weight loss and maintenance continue to consume a low calorie, low fat diet. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 1998, 98, 408-413.
Read the abstract

McGuire, M.T., Wing, R.R., Klem, M.L., Seagle, H.M., & Hill, J.O. Long-term maintenance of weight loss: Do people who lose weight through various weight loss methods use different behaviors to maintain their weight? International Journal of Obesity, 1998, 22, 572-577.
Read the abstract

Klem, M.L., Wing, R.R., McGuire, M.T., Seagle, H.M., & Hill, J.O. Psychological symptoms in individuals successful at long-term maintenance of weight loss. Health Psychology, 1998, 17, 336-345.
Read the abstract

Wyatt H.R., Grunwald G.K., Seagle H.M., Klem M.L., McGuire M.T., Wing R.R. and Hill J.O. (1999). Resting energy expenditure in reduced-obese subjects in the National Weight Control Registry. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 69, 1189-1193.
Read the abstract

McGuire, M.T., Wing, R.R., Klem, M.L., Lang, W., and Hill, J.O. What predicts weight regain among a group of successful weight losers? (1999). Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 67, 177-185.
Read the abstract

Klem, M.L., Wing, R.R., Chang, C.H., Lang, W., McGuire, M.T., Sugerman, H.J., Hutchison, S.L., Makovich, A.L., and Hill, J.O. (2000). A case-control study of successful maintenance of a substantial weight loss: Individuals who lost weight through surgery versus those who lost weight through non-surgical means. International Journal of Obesity, 24: 573-579.
Read the abstract

Klem, M.L., Wing, R.R., Lang, W., McGuire, M.T., and Hill, J.O. (2000). Does weight loss maintenance become easier over time? Obesity Research, 8: 438-444.
Read the abstract

Wyatt HR, Grunwald OK, Mosca CL, Klem ML, Wing RR, Hill JO (2002). Long-term weight loss and breakfast in subjects in the National Weight Control Registry. Obesity Research; 10:78-82.
Read the abstract

Gorin AA, Phelan S, Wing RR, Hill JO. Promoting long-term weight control: does dieting consistency matter? International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders. 2004 Feb; 28(2):278-81.
Read the abstract

Raynor, H., Wing, R.R., Phelan, S. (2005) Amount of food group variety consumed in the diet and long-term weight loss maintenance. Obesity Research, May;13(5):883-890.
Read the abstract

Gorin, A., Phelan, S., Hill J., Wing, R.R. (2004) Medical triggers are associated with better short- and long-term weight loss outcomes. Preventive Medicine, Sep;39(3):612-16.
Read the abstract

Phelan, S., Wing, R.R., Hill, J., Dibello, J. (2003). Recovery from relapse among successful weight maintainers. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 78(6):1079-1084.             

Phelan, S., Wyatt, H., Hill, J., Wing, R.R. (2006) Are the Eating and Exercise Habits of Successful Weight Losers Changing? Obesity Research, April;14(4):710-716  

Raynor, D., Phelan, S., Hill, J., Wing, R.R. (2006) Television Viewing and Long-Term Weight Maintenance: Results from the National Weight Control Registry. Obesity Research, Oct;14(10):1816-1824

Phelan S, Roberts M, Lang W, Wing RR (2007). Empirical Evaluation of  Physical Activity Recommendations for Weight Control in Women. Medicine &  Science in Sports & Exercise; 39(10):1832-1836.  

Phelan S, Wyatt H, DiBello J, Fava JL, Hill JO, Wing RR (2007). Three-Year Weight Change in Successful Weight Losers Who Lost Weight in a Low-Carbohydrate Diet. Obesity; 15 (10): 2470-77.

Niemeier HM, Phelan S, Fava JL, Wing RR (2007). Internal Disinhibition Predicts Weight Regain Following Weight Loss and Weight Loss Maintenance. Obesity; 15 (10):2485-94.

Frestedt JL, Zenk JL, Kuskowski MA, Ward LS, Bastian ED. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2008 Mar 27;5:8.

Eating breakfast helps sustain weight loss. AAOHN J. 2006 Mar;54(3):136.

Masheb RM, Grilo CM. Eating patterns and breakfast consumption in obese patients with binge eating disorder. Behav Res Ther. 2006 Nov;44(11):1545-53. Epub 2005 Dec 22.

Vander Wal JS, Marth JM, Khosla P, Jen KL, Dhurandhar NV. Short-term effect of eggs on satiety in overweight and obese subjects. J Am Coll Nutr. 2005 Dec;24(6):510-5.

Lejeune MP, Kovacs EM, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. Additional protein intake limits weight regain after weight loss in humans. Br J Nutr. 2005 Feb;93(2):281-9.

Layman DK. Protein quantity and quality at levels above the RDA improves adult weight loss. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004 Dec;23(6 Suppl):631S-636S.

Johnston CS, Day CS, Swan PD. Postprandial thermogenesis is increased 100% on a high-protein, low-fat diet versus a high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet in healthy, young women. J Am Coll Nutr. 2002 Feb;21(1):55-61.

Gluck ME, Geliebter A, Satov T. Night eating syndrome is associated with depression, low self-esteem, reduced daytime hunger, and less weight loss in obese outpatients. Obes Res. 2001 Apr;9(4):264-7.

Monneuse MO, Bellisle F, Koppert G. Eating habits, food and health related attitudes and beliefs reported by French students. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1997 Jan;51(1):46-53.

Marín-Guerrero AC, Gutiérrez-Fisac JL, Guallar-Castillón P, Banegas JR, Rodríguez-Artalejo F. Eating behaviours and obesity in the adult population of Spain. Croezen S, Visscher TL, Ter Bogt NC, Veling ML, Haveman-Nies A.

The most important risk factor for overweight and obesity was skipping breakfast. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 28 November 2007; doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602950.

Vanelli M, Iovane B, Bernardini A, Chiari G, Errico MK, Gelmetti C, Corchia M, Ruggerini A, Volta E, Rossetti S; Students of the Post-Graduate School of Paediatrics, University of Parma.

Breakfast habits of 1,202 northern Italian children admitted to a summer sport school. Breakfast skipping is associated with overweight and obesi

 

Magalie Lenoir, Fuschia Serre, Lauriane Cantin, Serge H. Ahmed

University Bordeaux 2, Université Bordeaux 1, CNRS, UMR 5227, Bordeaux , France  

Citation: Lenoir M, Serre F, Cantin L, Ahmed SH (2007) 

Intense Sweetness Surpasses Cocaine Reward.

Journal of Applied Physiology April 2008; 104(4):1121-8  

 

J Appl Physiol. 2007 Jun;102(6):2158-64. Epub 2007 Feb 22. Goto K, Ishii N, Mizuno A, Takamatsu K.  

J Appl Physiol 102: 1439-1447, 2007. First published December 14, 2006; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.01098.2006
8750-7587/07  

Caffeine and athletic performance:

1. Ahrens, J.N., S.H. Crixell, L.K. Lloyd, and J.L. Walker. The physiological effects of caffeine in women during treadmill walking. J. Strength Cond. Res. 21:164-168. 2007.

2. Antonio, J. Caffeine: The forgotten ergogenic aid. Strength Cond. J. 26:50-51. 2004.

3. Armstrong, L.E., D.J. Casa, C.M. Maresh, and M.S. Ganio. Caffeine, fluid-electrolyte balance, temperature regulation, and exercise-heat tolerance. Exerc. Sport Sci Rev. 35:135-140. 2007.

4. Bell , D.G., & T.M. McLellan. Effect of repeated caffeine ingestion on repeated exhaustive exercise endurance. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 35:1348-1354. 2003.

5. Birnbaum, L.J., & J.D. Herbst. Physiologic effects of caffeine on cross-country runners. J. Strength Cond. Res. 18:463-465. 2004.

6. Bruce, C.R., Anderson , M.E. , Fraser, S.F., Stepto, N.K., Klein, R., Hopkins , W.G., & J.A. Hawley. Enhancement of 2000-m rowing performance after caffeine ingestion. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 32:1958-1963. 2000.

7. Butts, N.K., & D. Crowell. Effect of caffeine ingestion on cardiorespiratory endurance in men and women. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport , 56:301-305. 1985.

8. Costill, D.L., G.P. Dalsky, and W.J. Fink. Effects of caffeine ingestion on
metabolism and exercise performance. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc ., 10:155-158. 1978.

9. Foltz, E., A. Ivy, & C. Barborka. The use of double work periods in the study of fatigue and the influence of caffeine on recovery. American Journal of Physiology , 136:79-86. 1942.

10. Foltz, E., A. Ivy, & C. Barborka. The influence of amphetamine (Benzedrine) sulfate, D-desoxyephedrine hydrochloride (Pervitan), and caffeine upon work output and recovery when rapidly exhausting work is done by trained subjects. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine , 28:603-606. 1943.

11. Graham, T.E. Caffeine and exercise: Metabolism, endurance and performance. Sports Med . 31:786-807. 2001.

12. Graham, T.E., & L.L. Spriet. Caffeine and exercise performance. Gatorade
Sports Science Institute: Sports Science Exchange , 9:60-64. 1996.

13. Graham, T.E. and L.L. Spriet. Performance and metabolic responses to a high caffeine dose during prolonged exercise. J. Appl. Physiol . 71:2292-2298. 1991.

14. Hoffman, J.R., J. Kang, N.A. Ratamess, P.F. Jennings, G.T. Mangine, and A.D. Faigenbaum. Effect of nutritionally enriched coffee consumption on aerobic and anaerobic exercise performance. J. Strength Cond. Res. 21:456-459. 2007.

15. Ivy, J.L., D.L. Costill, W.J. Fink, and R.W. Lower. Influence of caffeine and carbohydrate feedings on endurance performance. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc ., 11:6-11. 1978.

16. Kalmar , J.M., and E. Cafarelli. Effects of caffeine on neuromuscular function. J. Appl. Physiol . 87:801-808. 1999.

17. Lopes, J.M., M. Aubier, J. Jardim, J.V. Aranda, and P.T. Macklem. Effect of caffeine on skeletal muscle function before and after fatigue. J. Appl. Physiol . 54:1303-1305. 1983.

18. Malek, M.H., T.J. Housh, J.W. Coburn, T.W. Beck, R.J. Schmidt, D.J. Housh, and G.O. Johnson. Effects of eight weeks of caffeine supplementation and endurance training on aerobic fitness and body composition. J. Strength Cond. Res . 20:751-755. 2006.

19. McArdle, W.D., F.I. Katch, and V.L. Katch. Exercise physiology: energy, nutrition, and human performance (fifth edition). Baltimore , MD : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2001. p. 564-568.

20. McArdle, W.D., F.I. Katch, and V.L. Katch. Sports and exercise nutrition . Baltimore , MD : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 1999. p. 321-326.

21. National Collegiate Athletic Association. NCAA Banned-Drug Classes 2004-2005. Available at: http://www1.ncaa.org/membership/ed_outreach/health-safety/drug_testing/banned_drug_classes.pdf.

22. Spriet, L.L. Caffeine. In: Performance-Enhancing Substances in Sport and Exercise . M.S. Bahrke and C.E. Yesalis, eds. Champaing , IL : Human Kinetics, 2002. p. 267-278.

23. Weir, J., T.D. Noakes, K. Myburgh, and B. Adams. A high carbohydrate diet negates the metabolic effect of caffeine during exercise. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc ., 19:100-105. 1987.

24. Williams, J.H. Caffeine, neuromuscular function and high-intensity exercise performance. J. Sports Med. Phys. Fitness 31:481-489. 1991.  

Protein right after a workout for optimal absorption:

1. American College of Sports Medicine. ACSM's Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription, 7th ed. Lipincott, Williams and Wilkins: Philadelphia , Pa. , 2006.

2. Arciero, P.J., et al. Increased dietary protein and combined high-intensity aerobic and resistance exercise improves body fat distribution and cardiovascular risk factors. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 16(4): 373-392, 2006.

3. Campbell , W.W., et al. Increased energy requirements and changes in body composition with resistance training in older adults. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 60(2): 167-175, 1994.

4. Cribb, P.J., and A. Hayes. Effects of supplement timing and resistance exercise on skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 38(11): 1918-1925, 2006.

5. Dreyer, H.C., and E. Volpi. Role of protein and amino acids in the pathophysiology and treatment of sarcopenia. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 24(2): 140S-145, 2005.

6. Elliot, T.A., et al. Milk ingestion stimulates net muscle protein synthesis following resistance exercise. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 38(4): 667-674, 2006.

7. Esmarck, B., et al. Timing of postexercise protein intake is important for muscle hypertrophy with resistance training in elderly humans. The Journal of Physiology 535(Pt 1): 301-311, 2001.

8. Forbes, G.B., and E. Halloran. The adult decline in lean body mass. Human Biology 48(1): 161-173, 1976.

9. Keys, A., H.L. Taylor and F. Grande. Basal metabolism and age of adult man. Metabolism 22(4): 579-587, 1973.

10. Phillips, S.M., et al. Mixed muscle protein synthesis and breakdown after resistance exercise in humans. American Journal of Physiology 273(1 Pt 1): E99-107, 1997.

11. Pratley, R., et al. Strength training increases resting metabolic rate and norepinephrine levels in healthy 50- to 65-year-old men. Journal of Applied Physiology 76(1): 133-137, 1994.

12. Tipton, K.D., and R.R. Wolfe. Exercise, protein metabolism and muscle growth. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 11(1): 109-132, 2001.

13. Westcott, W., and T. Baechle. Strength Training Past 50, 2nd ed. Human Kinetics: Champaign , Ill. , 2007.

14. Westcott, W., and J. Guy. A Physical Evolution. IDEA Today Vol. 14: 58-65, 1996.

15. Westcott, W., and G. Reinl. Get Stronger, Feel Younger Rodale: New York , N.Y. , 2007.

16. Westcott, W., and R. Winett. Applying the ACSM guidelines. FMY Vol. 22.: 40-43, 2006.  

 

Scierntific Evidence Support for Proper Hydration in fitness, fat loss and health:

Ganio MS, Casa DJ, Armstrong LE, Maresh CM.

Influence of Hydration and Electrolyte Supplementation on Incidence and Time to Onset of Exercise-Associated Muscle Cramps.  

J Athl Train. 2005 Jun;40(2):71-75 

Jung AP, Bishop PA, Al-Nawwas A, Dale RB.

Hydration and cognition: a critical review and recommendations for future research.  

J Am Coll Nutr. 2007 Oct;26(5 Suppl):555S-561S 

Lieberman HR.

Dehydration and cognitive performance.  

J Am Coll Nutr. 2007 Oct;26(5 Suppl):549S-554S. 

Grandjean AC, Grandjean NR.

Hydration and disease.  

J Am Coll Nutr. 2007 Oct;26(5 Suppl):535S-541S. 

Manz F.

Hydration and cognitive function in children.  

Nutr Rev. 2006 Oct;64(10 Pt 1):457-64. 

D'Anci KE, Constant F, Rosenberg IH.

The effect of voluntary dehydration on cognitive functions of elementary school children.  

Acta Paediatr. 2005 Nov;94(11):1667-73. 

Bar-David Y, Urkin J, Kozminsky E.

The importance of good hydration for day-to-day health. Ritz P, Berrut G.  

Nutr Rev. 2005 Jun;63(6 Pt 2):S6-13. 

Koulmann N, Banzet S, Bigard AX.  

Physical activity in the heat: physiology of hydration recommendations

Med Trop (Mars). 2003;63(6):617-26. 

Maughan RJ, Shirreffs SM, Watson P.  

Exercise, heat, hydration and the brain. 

J Am Coll Nutr. 2007 Oct;26(5 Suppl):604S-612S. 

Murray B.  

Hydration and physical performance.  

J Am Coll Nutr. 2007 Oct;26(5 Suppl):542S-548S. 

 

cancer of the urinary bladder was reduced significantly by a high fluid intake (2.5 liters or more) Michaud, DS, Spiegelman D, Clinton SK , Rimm EB, Curhan GC, Willett WC, and Giovannucci EL. Fluid intake and the risk of bladder cancer in men. N Engl J Med 340: 1390-1397, 1999 (Commentaries. N Engl J Med 340: 1424-1426, 1999 and 341: 847-848, 1999.)

A similar correlation has been reported for colorectal cancer and premalignant adenomatous polyps Lubin, F, Rozen P, Arieli B, Farbstein M, Knaani Y, Bat L, and Farbstein H. Nutritional and lifestyle habits and water-fiber interaction in colorectal adenoma etiology. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 6: 79-85, 1997 AND Shannon, J, White E, Shattuck AL, and Potter JD. Relationship of food groups and water intake to colon cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 5: 495-502, 1996 AND Tang, R, Wang JY, Lo SK, and Hsieh LL. Physical activity, water intake and risk of colorectal cancer in Taiwan: a hospital-based case-control study. Int J Cancer 82: 484-489, 1999

women who drank five or more glasses of water per day (1,185 ml or more) reduced their risk of fatal coronary heart disease by ~41% compared with women who drank two glasses or less (474 ml or less). The comparable figure in men was 54% less risk. The effect was limited to water; in fact, the drinking of "fluids other than water" (coffee, tea, juices, soft drinks) appeared to increase the risk of fatal coronary heart disease. Chan, J, Knutsen SF, Blix GG, Lee JW, and Fraser GE. Water, other fluids, and fatal coronary heart disease. The Adventist Health Study. Am J Epidemiol 155: 827-833, 2002

prevention of other diseases, conditions of the urinary system, such as urinary tract infections: Stamm WE. Cystitis and urethritis. In: Diseases of the Kidney (5th ed.), edited by Schrier RW and Gottshalk CW. Boston: Little, Brown, 1992, p. 1007-1027. AND and urinary stones: Borghi, L, Meschi T, Amato F, Briganti A, Novarini A, and Giannini A. Urinary volume, water and recurrences in idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis: a 5-year randomized prospective study. J Urol 155: 839-843, 1996

Losing weight. There is some evidence, in both women” Lappalainen, R, Mennen L, van Weert L, and Mykkänen H. Drinking water with a meal: a simple method of coping with feelings of hunger, satiety and desire to eat. Eur J Clin Nutr 47: 815-819, 1993 AND men: Rolls, BJ, Castellanos VH, Halford JC, Kilara A, Panyam D, Pelkman CL, Smith GP, and Thorwart ML. Volume of food consumed affects satiety in men. Am J Clin Nutr 67: 1170-1177, 1998

water drunk along with a meal or water incorporated into food (74, 85) does promote satiety: Rolls, BJ, Bell EA, and Thorwart ML. Water incorporated into a food but not served with a food decreases energy intake in lean women. Am J Clin Nutr 70: 448-455, 1999

: Stookey, JD. Energy density, energy intake and weight status in a large free-living sample of Chinese adults: exploring the underlying roles of fat, protein, carbohydrate, fiber and water intakes. Eur J Clin Nutr 55: 349-359, 2001

Benefits are claimed for fatigue, arthritis, lack of mental alertness, angina, migraine, hypertension, asthma, dry cough, dry skin, acne, nosebleed, depression: Water, Water Everywhere. HealthNews 7: 3, 2001. AND: Why is tea healthy? The importance of fluid intake & replacement [Online]. The Tea Council. http://www.teacouncil.co.uk/tc/content;tea_hel/fluid.htm AND: McCord, H. Are you drinking too much water? Prevention 53: 62-63, 2001.

Helps to prevent water retention: Choukroun, G, Schmitt F, Martinez F, Drüeke TB, and Bankir L. Low urine flow reduces the capacity to excrete a sodium load in humans. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 273: R1726-R1733, 1997  

Eight Glasses a Day (or more) For Optimal Health and Dosease Prevention: Boschmann, M. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, December 2003; vol. 88: pp. 6015-6019. Leslie Bonci, MPH, RD,spokeswoman, American Dietetic Association; director, sports nutrition, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. Daniel Moser, PhD, exercise physiologist, Elite Health and Wellness, Philadelphia .  

Studies on proper hydration for sports performance and hindrance with dehydration: (Int J Neurosci. 2002 Oct;112(10):1191-206), (Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003 Jan;35(1):150-6), (Sports Med. 2002;32(15):959-71), (J Strength Cond Res. 2001 Nov;15(4):514-8), (J Sci Med Sport. 2001 Jun;4(2):179-87), (J Am Diet Assoc. 1999 Feb;99(2):207-12), (Int J Sports Med. 1998 Jun;19 Suppl 2:S133-5), (Sports Med. 1997 Jul;24(1):38-54), (Int J Sports Med. 1996 Feb;17(2):85-91), (Clin Sports Med. 1995 Jan;14(1):23-32), (Bol Asoc Med P R. 1990 Aug;82(8):366-8), (Sports Med. 1989 Aug;8(2):80-100).  

The effects of fluid restriction on hydration status and subjective feelings in man. Shirreffs SM, Merson SJ, Fraser SM, Archer DT. School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Loughborough University , Loughborough LE11 3TU , UK . s.shirreffs@lboro.ac.uk  

AMA Arch Intern Med. 1955 Aug;96(2):142-52. Headache and hydration; the significance of two varieties of fluid accumulation in patients with vascular headache of the migraine type.

Trans Am Neurol Assoc. 1955-1956;(80th Meeting):217-9. Studies on headache: headache and hydration.

Clin Sports Med. 2007 Jan;26(1):1-16 Evidence-based approach to lingering hydration questions.  

CLA STUDIES:

Uehara H, Suganuma T, Negishi S, Uda Y, Furukawa Y, Ueno S, Sato K. Physical properties of two isomers of conjugated linoleic acid. J. Am. Oil Chem. Sco. 85(1):29-36 (2008).

AbuGhazaleh AA. Effect of fish oil and sunflower oil supplementation on milk conjugated linoleic acid content for grazing dairy cows. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 141(3-4):220-232 (2008).

Park JHY. Inhibition of colon cancer cell growth by dietary components: role of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system. Asia Pacific J. Clin. Nutr. 17:257-260 (Suppl. 1) (2008).

Wallace RJ. Gut microbiology - broad genetic diversity, yet specific metabolic niches. Animal 2(5):661-668 (2008).

Wood JD, Enser M, Fisher AV, Nute GR, Sheard PR, Richardson RI , Hughes SI, Whittington FM. Fat deposition, fatty acid composition and meat quality: A review. Meat Sci. 78(4):343-358 (2008).

Cherniack EP. Potential applications for alternative medicine to treat obesity in an aging population. Alternative Med. Rev. 13(1):34-42 (2008).

Diaz ML, Watkins BA, Li Y, Anderson RA, Campbell WW. Chromium picolinate and conjugated linoleic acid do not synergistically influence diet- and exercise-induced changes in body composition and health indexes in overweight women. J. Nutr. Biochem. 19(1):61-68 (2008).

Motard-Belanger A, Charest A, Grenier G, Paquin P, Chouinard Y, Lemieux S, Couture P, Lamarche B. Study of the effect of trans fatty acids from ruminants on blood lipids and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 87(3):593-599 (2008).

Sneddon AA, Tsofliou F, Fyfe CL, Matheson I, Jackson DM, Horgan G, Winzell MS, Wahle KWJ, Ahren B, Williams LM. Effect of a conjugated linoleic acid and omega-3 fatty acid mixture on body composition and adiponectin. Obesity 16(5):1019-1024 (2008).

Bissonauth V, Chouinard PY, Marin J, Leblanc N, Richard D, Jacques H. Altered lipid response in hamsters fed cis-9,trans-11+trans-8,cis-10 conjugated linoleic acid mixture. Lipids 43(3):251-258 (2008).

Diniz YS, Santos PP, Assalin HB, Souza GA, Rocha KKHR, Ebaid GMX, Seiva FRF, Amauchi JF, Novelli Filho JLVB, Novelli ELB. Conjugated linoleic acid and cardiac health: Oxidative stress and energetic metabolism in standard and sucrose-rich diets. European J. Pharmacol. 579(1-3):318-325 (2008).

Iqbal MJ, Higginbotham A, Chickris N, Bollaert M, Rockway S, Banz WJ. A combination of a CLA-DAG oil modifies the diabetic phenotype in male Zucker diabetic fatty rats. Hormone Metabolic Res. 40(4):262-268 (2008).

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J Appl Physiol 102: 1439-1447, 2007. First published December 14, 2006